## 수치해석

created : 2022-04-20T15:32:34+00:00
modified : 2022-04-20T16:44:08+00:00

## Curves

### Curves - Implicit Representation

• Most curvest can be represented implicitly:
• $f(x, y) = 0$
• Examples:
• $ax + by + c = 0$
• $x^2 + y^2 - r^2 = 0$
• In 3D, surfaces are represented as:
• $f(x, y, z) = 0$

### Curves - Parametric Representation

• The value of each component (x, y, z) depends on an independent variable, u (the parameter).
• $p(u) = \begin{bmatrix} x(u) \\ y(u) \\ z(u) \end{bmatrix}$
• $\frac{dp(u)}{du} = \begin{bmatrix} \frac{dx(u)}{du} \\ \frac{dy(u)}{y(u)} \\ \frac{dz(u)}{z(u)} \end{bmatrix}$
• Derivative : Direction = tangent, Magnitude = speed that curve changes with u

### Criteria for choosing a representation

• Parametric forms are not unique. Many different representations are possible for a single curve.
• Criteria for a good representation:
• Local control of shape
• Smoothness and continuity
• Ability to evaluate derivatives
• Stability
• Ease of Rendering
• Parametric curves that are polynomials in u satisfy many of these criteria:
• $x(y) = c_0 + c_1 u + c_2 u^2 + \cdots + c_n u^n = \sum_{k=0}^n c_ku^k$

### Matrix Equation for parametric curve

• We can write the 3 euqations for x(u), y(u), and z(u) in one matrix equation:
• $p(u) = \begin{bmatrix} x(u) \\ y(u) \\ z(u) \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} \sum_{k=0}^n u^k c_{xk} \\ \sum_{k=0}^n u^k c_{yk} \\ \sum_{k=0}^n u^k c_{zk} \end{bmatrix = \sum_{k=0}^n u^k \begin{bmatrix} c_{xk} \\ c_{yk} \\ c_{zk} \end{bmatrix} = \sum_{k=0}^n u^k c_k$

### Degree of the Polynomial

• High degree can have rapid changes and lots of turns, but it requires more computation and curve may not be as smooth.
• Low degree means a smoother curve, but it may not fit the data as well.
• Compromise: Use low degree polynomials with short curve segments. Cubic polynomial work well.

### Multiple curve segments

• We usually want to define a curve segment between two endpoints. We define the curve between u=0 and u=1, so that:
• $p(0) = p_0$ and $p(1) = p_1$
• Longer curves are composed of multiple segments. We would like the connection between curves to be as smooth as possible.

### Interpolation

• If one point provides 3 equations and 12 unknowns, then 4 points provide 12 equations with 12 unknowns.
• We can choose any value of u to correspond to the 4 points, so we will choose to divide the interval 0 to 1 evenly(0, 1/3, 2/3, 1).