 Basic Sorting algorithm The most common uses of sorted sequences are
 making lookup or search efficient;
 making merging of sequences efficient
 enable processing of data in a defined order
Sorting algorithm
The output of any sorting algorithm must satisfy two conditions
 The output is in nondecreasing order: each element is no smaller than the previous element according to the desired total order
 The output is a permutation meaning that a reordering, yet retaining all of the original elements of the input.
Classification of Sorting Algorithms
 Computational Complexity : O(nlogn)
 Memory usage : O(1), sometimes O(log(n))
 Recursion
 Stability
 Whether or not they are a comparison sort
 Adaptability
Common sorting algorithms
 Bubble sort : Exchange two adjacent elements if they are out of order. Repeat until array is sorted.
 Selection sort : Find the smallest element in the array, and put it in the proper place. Swap it with the value in the first position. Repeat until array is sorted.
 Insertion sort : Scan successive elements for an outoforder item, then insert the item in the proper place.
 Merge sort : Divide the list of elements in two parts, sort the two parts individually and then merge it.
 Quick sort : Partition the array into two segments. In the first segment, all elements are less than or equal to the pivot value. In the second segment, all elements are greater than or equal to the pivot value. Finally, sort the two segments recursively.
 Divide and Conqure # Divide and Conquer Paradigm
Advantages of Divide and Conquer
 Solving difficult problems
 Algorithm efficiency
 Karatsuba’s fast multiplication method, quick and merge sort, Strassen algorithm for matrix multiplication, fast Fourier transforms.
 Parallelism
 multiprocessor machines, subproblems can be executed on different processors.
 Memory access
 An algorithm designed to exploit the cache in this way is called cacheoblivious
 D&C(Divide and Conquer) algorithms can be designed for important algorithms such as sorting, FFTs, matrix multiplication to be optimal cacheoblivious algorithms
 Roundoff control
Implementation issues
 Recursion
 If D&C algorithms are naturally implemented as recursive procedures, the partial subproblems leading to the one currently being solved are automatically stored in the procedure call stack.
 A recursive function is a function that calls itself within its definition.
 Explicit stack
 If D&C algorithms are implemented by a nonrecursive program that stored the partial subproblems in some explicit data structure, such as a stack, queue, or priority queue.
 Stack size
 In recursive implementations of D&C algorithms, one must make sure that there is sufficient memory allocated for the recursion stack, otherwise the execution may fail because of stack overflow.
 Choosing the base cases
 Sharing repeated subproblems
General Method
Divide and Conquer Strategy
 divide the problem instance into two or more smaller instances of the same problem, solve the smaller instances recursively, and assemble the solutions to form a solution of the original instance.
 The recursion stop when an instance is reached which too small to divide

When dividing the instance, one can either use whatever division comes most easily to hand or invest time in making the division carefully so that the assembly is simplified.
 Effective Sorting Algorithm
Review : Divide and conquer algorithms
Overview of Merge Sort
Because we’re using divideandconquer to sort, we need to decide what our subproblems are going to look like. The full problem is to sort an entire array. Let’s say that a subproblem is to sort a subarray.
In particular, we’ll think of a subproblem as sorting the subarray string at index p and going through index r. It will be convenient to have a notation for a subarray, so let’s say that array[p..r] denotes this subarray of array.
Note that we’re using “towdot” notation just to describe the algorithm, rater than a particular implementation of the algorithm in code. In terms of our notation, for an array of n elements, we can say that the original problem is to sort array[0..n1].
Here’s how merge sort uses divideandconquer:
 Divide by finding the number q of the position midway between p and r. Do this step the same way we found the midpoint in binary search: add p and r, divide by 2, and round down.
 Conquer by recursively sorting the subarrays in each of the two subproblems created by the dividing step. That is, recursively sort the subarray array[p..q] and recursively sort the subarray array[q+1..r].
 Combine by merging the two sorted subarrays back into the single sorted subarray array[p..r].
Lineartime merging
THe remaining piece of merge sort is the merge function, which merges two adjacent sorted subarrays, array[p..q] and array[q+1..r] into a single sorted subarray in array[p..r]. We’ll see how to construct this function so that it’s as efficient as possible.
Analysis of merge sort
 The divide step takes constant time, regardless of the subarray size. After all, the divide step just computes the midpoint q of the indices p and r. Recall that in bigTheta notation, we indicate constant time by Theta(1).
 The conquer step, where we recursively sort two subarrays of approximately n/2 elements each, takes some amount of time, but we’ll account for that time when we consider the subproblems.
 The combine step merges a total of n elements, taking Theta(n) time.
Overview of Quick Sort
 Divide by choosing any element in the subarray array[p..r]. Call this element the pivot. Rearrange the elements in array[p..r] so that all elements in array[p..r] that are less than or equal to the pivot are to its left and all elements that are greater than the pivot are to its right. We call this procedure partitioning . At this point, it doesn’t matter what order the elements to the left of the pivot are in relation to each other, and the same holds for the elements to the right of the pivot. We just care that each element is somewhere on the correct side of the pivot.
 Conquer by recursively sorting the subarrays array[p..q1] (all elements to the left of the pivot, which must be less than or equal to the pivot) and array[q+1..r]. All elements to the right of the pivot, which must be greater than the pivot.
 Combine by doing nothing. Once the conquer step recursively sorts, we are done.
Lineartime Partitioning
 Bestcase running time
 Averagecase running time
 Greedy Algorithm
Introduction
 The greedy method is a simple strategy of progressively building up a solution, one element at a time, by choosing the best possible element at each stage.
Knapsack Problem
 p[i]/w[i] ratio
Optimal Storage on Tapes
Job Sequencing with Deadlines
 sort p_i, put last
Optimal Merge Patterns
Huffman Codes
13.Graph Algorithm
Basic definitions
 Graph G= (V,E) where V is a set of vertices and E is a set of edges
 Directed graph G = <V,E> where E consists of ordered pairs
 Weighted graph G with a weight function w_g(e) where e in E
 Degree of a vertex v : deg(v)
 The number of incoming edges to v: indeg(v)
 The number of outgoing edges from v : outdeg(v)
Representation of Graphs
 G=(V, E) where V is a set of vertices {v_1, … , v_n}
Adjacency Matrix
Adjacency List
Path, Cycles, and Subgraphs
 Path P : a sequence of vertices P = (v_1, … v_k) where all i, (v_i, v_{i+1}) in E
 Simple path : v_i ≠ v_j where v_i, v_j in P
 Cycle : a sequence of vertices P = (v_1, … v_k, v_{k+1} = v_1) where all i, (v_i, v_{i+1}) in E
 Simple Cycle : v_i ≠ v_j where v_i, v_j in P except the pair v_1, v_{k+1}
 Subgraphs : a graph G
= (V
, E) is G \subset G iff V
\subset V and E` \subset E Connected graph : for every pair of vertices (u,v) there exists P = (u,…,v)
Trees and Spanning Trees
 Tree : a connected asyclic graph
 Spanning tree : a tree that contains all vertices in V and is a subgraph of G
 Let T be a spanning tree of a graph G. Then
 Any two vertices in T are connected by a unique simple path.
 If any edge is removed from T, then T becomes diconnected.
 If we add any edge into T, then the new graph will contain a cycle.
 Number of edges in T is n1
Minimum Spanning Trees (MST)
 Weight of a spanning tree w(T0) : the sum of weights of all edges in T
 Minimum Spanning Tree : a spanning tree with the smallest possible weight
 Examples of MST : Network Design, Airline routes
MST related algorithms
 Kruskal’s algorithm : For a graph with n vertices, keep on adding the least cost edge until n1 edges added
 Prim’s algorithm : By focusing on vertices instead of edges, yielding a simple algorithm(implementation)
 Dijkstra’s algorithm : The single Source ShortestPath problem
Dijkstra’s Algorithm

Pseudocode
function Dijkstra(graph, Source): create vertex set Q for each vertex v in Graph: // Initialization dist[v] < INFINITY // Unknown distance from source to v prev[v] < UNDIFINED // Previous node in optimal path from source add v to Q dist[source] < Q while Q is not empty: u < vertex in Q with min dist[u] remove u from Q for each neighbor v of u: alt < dist[u] + length(u, v) if alt < dist[v]: dist[v] < alt prev[v] < u return dist[], prev[]

Pseudocode (If we are only interested in a shortest path between vertices source and target)
S < empty sequence u < target if prev[u] is defined or u = source: while u is defined: insert u at the beginning of S u < prev[u]

Algorithm using priority queue
function Dijkstra(Graph, source): dist[source] < 0 create vertex set Q for each vertex V in Graph: if V != source dist[v] < INFINITY prev[v] < UNDEFINED Q.add_with_priority(v, dist[v]) while Q is not empty: u < Q.extract_min() for each neighbor v of u: alt < dist[u] + length(u, v) if alt < dist[v] dist[v] < alt prev[v] < u Q.descreate_priority(v, alt) return dist, prev
Algorithm : Complexity

O( V ^2) 
O( E + V ^2) = O( V ^2) 
If sparse graphs, Theta(( E + V ) * log V )
Kruskal’s Algorithm

Kruskal’s algorithm is a minimumspanningtree algorithm which finds an edge of the least possible weight that connects any two trees in the forest.
KRUSKAL(G): A = 0 foreach v in G.V: MAKESET(v) foreach (u, v) in G.E ordered byu weight(u, v) increasing: if FINDSET(u) != FINDSET(v): A = A \union { (u, v) } UNION(u, v) return A
Complexity
 O(E log V)
Prim’s Algorithm
 Initialize a tree with a single vertex, chosen arbitarily from the graph.
 Grow the tree by one edge: of the edges that connect the tree to vertices not yet in the tree, find the minimumweight edge, and transfer it to the tree
 repeat step 2 until all vertices are in the tree
Complexity

Adjacency Matrix : O( V ^2) 
Binary heap and adjacency List : O( E log V )
 Dynamic algorithm
 Dynamic Programming (Bellman equation)
Introduction
 Steps in a dynamic programming solution
 Verify that the principle of optimality holds
 Set up the dynamicprogramming recurrence equations
 Solve the dynamicprogramming recurrence equations for the value of the optimal solution
 Perform a trace back step in which the solution itself is constructed
 Core of dynamic programming
 Do not recompute previously computed ones!
 This method is also called “Memoization”
 Difficulties
 It may be impossible to decompose original problem into smaller ones
 Impractical number of subproblems
All pairs shortest paths
Floyd’s algorithm (Time complexity : O(n^3))
function floyd(cost, a, n){
for i := 1 to n do {
for j := 1 to n do {
a[i,j] := cost[i,j];
}
}
for k := 1 to n do {
for i := 1 to n do {
for j := 1 to n do {
a[i,j] := min(a[i,j], a[i,k] + a[k,j]);
}
}
}
}
MultiStage Graphs (Time complexity : Theta(V + E))
function fgraph(G, k, n, p){
cost[n] : = 0;
for j := n1 to 1 step 1 do {
let r be a vertex such that (j,r) is an edge of G and c[j,r] + cost[r] is minimum;
cost[j] := c[j,r] + cost[r];
d[j] := r;
}
p[1] := 1;
p[k] := n;
for j:= 2 to k1 do {
p[j] := d[p[j1]];
}
}
The Knapsack Problem
 w_k = the weight of each typek item, for k = 1,2,…,N
 r_k = the value associated with each typek item, for k = 1,2,…,N
 c = the weight capacity of the knapsack.
 Basic Traversal Methods
Definitions
Search
 finding a path or traversal
 between a start node and one of a set of goal nodes
 a study of states and their transitions
Traversal
 the search that involved the examination of every vertex in the tree.
Techniques for Traversal of a Binary Tree
 Three ways to traverse a binary tree : Inorder, Preorder, Postorder
 Common Point : The left subtree is traversed before The right subtree
 Difference Point : THe time at which a node is visited.
Inorder Traversal
Algorithm inorder(Node t)
{
if t!=0, then
{
inorder(t>left_child);
visit(t);
inorder(t>right_child);
}
}
Preorder Traversal
Algorithm preorder(Node t)
{
if t!=0, then
{
visit(t);
preorder(t>left_child);
preorder(t>right_child);
}
}
Postoder Traversal
Algorithm postorder(Node t)
{
if t!=0, then
{
postorder(t>left_child);
postorder(t>right_child);
visit(t);
}
}
NonRecursive Binary Tree Traversal Algorithms
NonRecursive Inorder Traversal
Algorithm inorder(){
stack[1] = 0;
vertex = root;
top: while(vertex!=0){
push the vertex into the stack, vertex = leftchild(vertex)
}
pop the elemenet from the stack and make it as vertex
while(vertex!=0){
print the vertex node
if(rightchild(vertex)!=0){
vertex = rightchild(vertex)
goto top
}
pop the element from the stack and made it as vertex
}
}
NonRecursive Preorder Traversal
Algorithm Preorder(){
stack[1] = 0;
vertex = root;
while(vertex!=0){
print the vertex node
if(rightchild(vertex)!=0){
push the right child of vertex into the stack
if(leftchild(vertex) !=0){
vertex := leftson(vertex)
else
pop the element from the stack and made it as vertex
}
}
NonRecursive Postorder Traversal
Algorithm postorder(){
stack[1] = 0;
vertex = root;
top: while(vertex!=0){
push vertex onto stack
if(rightchild(vertex)!=0)
push vertex onto stack
vertex := leftson(vertex)
}
pop from stack and make it as vertex
while(vertex > 0){
print the vertex node, pop from stack and make it as vertex
}
if(vertex < 0){
vertex := vertex
goto top
}
}